FRANŠIZING (franchising): Šta je franšizing i po kom principu funkcioniše?

  • jun 10, 2013
  • By Viktor
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Reč franšizing potiče od francuske reči slobodan, besplatan i iskren. Franšizing se moze naći čak i u 1850 godini. Nastala je takođe kao metoda poslovne aktivnosti banke, pri čemu ona prodaje svoje poslovne metode kao i svoje ime nezavisnim i malim preduzećima.

Issac Singer koji je usavršio šivaću mašinu je da bi prodao više mašina uspostavio jedan od najraninijih primera franšizinga. Negov primer, iako neprofitabilan i manje-više neuspešan je poznat kao prvi dokumentovan primer frašizinga u Americi. Malo kasnije jedan od veoma uspešnih franšiza je John S. Pemberton i franšizing Coca-Cola. Rani primeri franšizinga su telegraf koji je vođen različitim voznim kompanijama, a kontrolisan od strane Western Union-a.

Prvi primeri modernog franšizinga se mogu naći 1919. u prodavnicama hrane kada je biznismen moga koristiti ime, izgled čak i hranu uspešnih firmi za godišnju dažbinu. Franšizing je postao popularniji 1930-ih godina. Frašizing je predstavljao metod poslovanja kada velika firma proda licencu za svoje isprobane i uspešne metode poslovanja firmi ili osobi voljnoj da plati godišnje dažbine i ispuni date kriterijume. Sudeći prema nedeljnom časopisu “Financial times” kada bi promet svih franšizinga u Americi bio preveden kao nacinalni promet on bih bio sedmi najveći na svetu.

Pozitivni aspekti frašizinga su da firma voljna da kupi licencu dobija često međjunarodno poznato ime koje je zahvaljujući marketingu viđeno kao visoko kvalitetno u mislima potrošača. Firma koja prodaje franšizing takođe obezbeđuje obuku i pomoć u planiranju objekta. Najnegativniji aspekati franšizinga su gubitak kontrole i velik porezi. Često vlasnik franšize ne može da koristi svoj sopstveni stil poslovanja, on mora da prati tačan način naložen od strane firme koja mu je odobrila franšizu. Porezi su vrlo često predstavljene u smislu celokupnog prometa, a ne profita, tako da ako vlasnik koji ima veliki promet, a istovremeno nije u stanju da kontroliše troškove on može završiti u minusu. Danas se mogu naći frašizmi u stotinama hiljada kompanija i taj se broj naravno povećava svake godine. Najuspešniji primeri franšizma su McDonald’s, Burger King, Hotel Hilton i First Interest Bank Ii Los Angeles (USA).

McDONALD’S

McDonald’s posluje u preko 120 zemalja i svakoga dana služi preko 54 miliona mušterija. Braća Dick i Mac McDonald su otvorili prvi McDonald 1940 godine i danas McDonald’s ima najviše restorana na svetu u poredjenju sa bilo kojim drugim lancem restorana. Dick i Mac su 1948 izumeli model brze hrane. Mcdonald’s je vlasnik oko 70% postojećih restorana a 30% su franšizmi. Vlasnici McDonald’sovih franšiza su obučavani u Hamburger univerzitetu u Oak Brooks, u Ilinoisu (USA). Prvi McDonald’s u centralnoj Evropi je otvoren 1988. godine u Beogradu (Srbija). Da bi otvorio McDonald’s, vlasnik franšize mora platiti 60% troškova gradnje objekta i takođe 45 hiljada američkih dolara kao početnu cenu. Da bi bio razmotren za McDonald’s frašizam pojedinac mora posedovati minimum 200 hiljada američkih dolara i potpisati ugovor na 20 godina. Naravno McDonald’s se ne može pomenuti bez pominjana njegovog najvećeg rivala Burger Kinga.

BURGER KING

Burger King koji je osnovan 1954. godine u Majamiju na Floridi (USA). Otvorio je prvi franšizing 1961. godine i danas je jedan od najuspesnijih franšiza na svetu.

Burger King je poznat po svome sloganu “Have it you way” što u prevodu znači uživaj na svoj način. Burge King posluje u svih 50 Američkih država, Kanadi, i preko 60 zemalja u svetu i vođen je preko 90% u vidu samostalnih franšiza. Burger King ima 11.223 lokala i 10.144 je franšizing odnosno 90.4%, i samo 1.079 je vlasništvo kompanije. Da bi neko otvorio Burger Kingov franšizing on mora raspolagati sa minimum 1.5 miliona američkih dolara, platiti 50 hiljada američkih dolara kao osnovni ulog i posle toga 50 hiljada američkih dolara godišnje. Takodje vlasnik franšizinga mora platiti 4.5% porez na profita i 4% za marketing. Takođe da bi otvorio Burger Kingov franšizam mora se potpisati ugovor na 20 godina i obezbetiti 15 stalno zaposlenih i 35 zaposlenih na smene. Objekat mora imati 3.600 kvadratnih stopa “feet”, otprilike 360 kvadratnih metara i mora ispunjavati sledeće uslove, odnosni biti : samostalni objekat, u izlogu robne kuće, ili unutar velike robne kuće. Za one koji se odluče da otvore Burger King franšizu omogućena je pomoć u izboru prostora, trening koji traje 300 sati u učionici i 400 sati u restoranu, i takođe međunarodni korporacijski tim od 928 zaposlenih. Burger King planira da se proširi u sve države sveta koje ispunjavaju gore pomenute kriterijume. Sudeći prema statistici “Businessweek online”, Burger King je za završni period (30. septembar 2006. godine) ostvario neto profit u iznosu od 40 miliona američkih dolara, tj. skok od 86% , i porast u vrednosti deonica od 30 američkih centa. Burger Kingov promet je dostigao 546 miliona dolara ove godine što je skok od 7% u odnosu na 2005 godinu. Sudeći po ovim podacima Burger Kingov potez franšizinga se i dan danas isplaćuje.
Ovo su bili primeri najpopularnijih i poznatijih ugostiteljskih objekata koji deluju po principu franšizinga, a sledeći primer franšizinga se odnosi na hotelijerstvo ili specifičnije Hilton hotel.

HILTON HOTEL

Moderni koncept gostoprimstva je počet pre 85 godina zahvaljujući Conrad-u Hilton-u koji je 1919. godine otvori prvi Hilton hotel i time započeo tradiciju odlične usluge. Prvi Hiltonov franšizing je otvoren 1967. godine i sada je preko 70% Hiltona vođeno u smislu franšizinga. Hilton trenutno ima 236 hotela, a 169 ili 71.6% su fransizmi. Hilton ima hotele u 39 Američkih država, Kanadi i dve strane zemlje. Iako deluje da je Hilton malo manje rasprostranjen to je zato jer su kriterijumi daleko strožiji nego u slucaju McDonaldsa i Burger Kinga. Da bi otvorio Hilton franšizing, more posedovati preko 60 miliona američkih dolara i osnovni ulog je izmedju 33-57 miliona američkih dolara. Godišnje dažbine iznose osnovnu porez od 5%, dodatnu porez od 5% i porez za marketing od 4% totalnog prometa. Takođe prosečni Hilton franšizing mora imat 150 stalnih zaposlenih. Da bi otvorio Hilton franšizing mora se posedovati 135.000 kvadratnih stopa “feet” ili oko 13.500 kvadratnih metara u vidu samostojećeg objekta. Ugovor za franšizing se potpisuje za rok od 22 godine i može se produžiti u rokovima od po 10 godina. Hilton obezbedjuje tim od 2.332 zaposlenih u centralnoj filijali za pitanja obuke i legalna pitanja. Obuka traje četiri dana u Dalasu u Teksasu (USA), tri dana u Beverli Hilsu, u Kaliforniji (USA) i dodatnih 3 dana u glavnoj filijali. Trenutno Hilton planira da nastavi da se proširuje u Severnoj Americi i Južnoj Americi sa naglaskom na Meksiko. Hilton je do sada objavio promet u iznosu od 2,2 milijarde američkih dolara. Profit je skočio 87% i to zahvaljujući porastu u prometu franšiziranih hotela od 671 milion američkih dolara u poredjenju sa 31 milion američkih dolara 2005. godine.

FIRST INTEREST BANK IN LOS ANGELES

Jedan od najneobičnijih vidova frašizma je First Interest Bank in Los Angeles (USA), jer se ideja franšizinga transferisala i pored navedenih kompanija kao sto su Hotel Hilton, McDonald’s, Coca-Cola, itd. i na bankarstvo ali naravno u limitiranom vidu. First Interest Bank In Los Angeles (USA) je dala franšizu za 28 banaka (koje imaju iznada 90 bankarskih središta u 8 federalnih jedinica, koja ima aktivu preko 4 milijarde američkih dolara). Banke koje su bile uključene u franšizu mogle su da koriste ime First Interest Bank i reklamu, razne poslovne savete od davaoca fanšize i obuke menadžera. Pravo i pristup bankomatima su takođe dobile od First Interest Bank-e i razno razne druge pogodnosti. I naravno sve ove banke su zadržale svoju postojeću vlasničku strukturu. Zašto je bitno napomenuti ovu banku, jer kao što je na početku navedeno da je franšizing nastao kao metoda poslovne aktivnosti banke, pri čemu ona prodaje svoje poslovne metode kao i svoje ime nezavisnim i malim preduzećima i kompanijama.The word Franchise comes from the French words free, free and sincere. Franchising can be found even in 1850. It was also as a method of business activities of the bank, where it sells its business methods as well as your name and independent small businesses.

Issac Singer who perfected the sewing machine is to sell more machines set up one of najraninijih examples of franchising. His example, though not profitable and less failure is known as the first documented example frašizinga in America. A little later, one of the most successful franchises is John S. Pemberton and franchising of Coca-Cola. Early examples of franchising the telegraph which led to various driving companies and controlled by Western Union.

The first examples of modern franchising can be found in 1919. in food stores as a businessman to use my name, appearance, and even the food of successful businesses for the annual levy. Franchising has become a popular 1930s. Frašizing was a method of operation when a big company licensed to sell their tried and successful methods of doing business firm or person to pay a voluntary annual dues and meet the given criteria. According to the weekly newspaper „Financial Times“ when the turnover of franchising in America was translated as NACIONAL traffic on I was the seventh largest in the world.

Positive aspects frašizinga that the company is willing to buy the license and ensuing crisis often gets the name recognition thanks to the marketing seen as high quality in the minds of consumers. The company that sold the franchise also provides training and assistance in the planning stage. The most negative aspects of franchising as loss of control and high taxes. Often a franchise owner can not use their own style of business, it must be accompanied by accurate as instructed by the company that approved the franchise. Taxes are often presented in terms of overall turnover and not profit, so that if the owner has a large circulation, and yet is able to control the costs he may end up in the red. Today one can find frašizmi hundreds of thousands of companies and the number is increasing every year, of course. The most successful examples franšizma as McDonald’s, Burger King, Hilton and First Bank Interest Ii Los Angeles (USA).

McDONALD’S

McDonald’s operates in more than 120 countries each day and serves over 54 million customers. Brothers Dick and Mac McDonald opened the first McDonald’s in 1940 and today has the most McDonald’s restaurants in the world in comparison with any other chain restaurants. Dick and Mac in 1948 invented the model of fast food. McDonald’s owns about 70% of existing restaurants and 30% are franšizmi. McDonald’s franchise owners are trained at Hamburger University in Oak Brooks, Illinois (USA). The first McDonald’s in Central Europe opened in 1988. in Belgrade (Serbia). To open a McDonald’s franchise owner has to pay 60% of the cost of the construction and also 45 thousand U.S. dollars as the starting price. To be considered for McDonald’s franchises individual must have a minimum of 200 thousand U.S. dollars and sign a contract for 20 years. Of course, McDonald’s can not be mentioned without mentioning his rival Burger King.

BURGER KING

Burger King, which was founded in 1954. in Miami, Florida (USA). He opened his first franchise in 1961. Today it is one of the most successful franchises in the world.

Burger King is known for its slogan „Have it you way“ which means enjoy it in their own way. Burge King operates in all 50 U.S. states, Canada and over 60 countries worldwide and is guided by over 90% in the form of independent franchises. Burger King has 11,223 outlets and 10,144 franchising or 90.4%, and only 1,079 of the company’s property. To open a Burger King’s franchise he has to have a minimum of 1.5 million U.S. dollars to pay 50 thousand dollars as initial deposit and then 50 thousand dollars a year. Also, franchise owner has to pay 4.5% tax on profits and 4% for marketing. Also, to open a Burger King’s franchisees must sign a contract for 20 years and provide leadership 15 full-time employees and 35 employees on shift. Facility must be 3,600 square feet, „feet“, approximately 360 square feet, and shall meet the following requirements or be: independent object in the window of the department store, or inside a shopping mall. For those who decide to open a Burger King franchise is achieved by the choice of space, training lasting 300 hours of classroom and 400 hours in the restaurant, and also international corporate team of 928 employees. Burger King plans to expand to all the world that meet the above criteria. According to the statistics, „Businessweek Online,“ Burger King for the final period (30 September 2006.) Recorded a net profit of EUR 40 million, ie. a jump of 86% and an increase in the value of shares of 30 U.S. cents. Burger King’s sales reached 546 million this year, a jump of 7% compared to 2005. Based on these data, Burger King’s move to franchising and today paid.
These were examples of the most popular and well-known restaurants that operate on the principle of franchising, and franchising following example refers to the hotel industry or specific Hilton Hotel.

HILTON HOTEL

The modern concept of hospitality, which started 85 years ago, thanks to Conrad Hilton which is in 1919. The Hilton opens first hotel and thus began the tradition of excellent service. Hilton’s first franchise was opened in 1967. and is now over 70% Hilton guided in terms of franchising. Hilton currently has 236 hotels, and 169 or 71.6% were fransizmi. Hilton has hotels in 39 U.S. states, Canada, and two foreign countries. Although it seems that Hilton is less widespread this is because the criteria are much stricter than in the case of McDonald’s and Burger King. In order to open the Hilton franchise, own more than 60 million U.S. dollars and the initial deposit is between 33-57 million dollars. Annual dues amount to the basic tax of 5%, an additional tax of 5% tax on marketing than 4% of total turnover. Also the average Hilton franchise must have 150 permanent employees. In order to open the Hilton franchise has to have 135,000 square feet, „feet“, or about 13,500 square feet freestanding building in mind. Franchise agreement is signed for a period of 22 years and may be extended in terms of 10 years. Hilton provides a team of 2,332 employees in the central branch of the training issues and legal issues. The training lasts for four days in Dallas, Texas (USA), three days in Beverly Hills, California (USA) and an additional 3 days in the main branch. Currently Hilton plans to continue to expand in North America and South America focusing on Mexico. Hilton has published turnover of 2.2 billion U.S. dollars. Profit jumped 87%, thanks to the rise in traffic franšiziranih hotel of 671 million U.S. dollars, compared with U.S. $ 31 million 2005th year.

FIRST BANK INTEREST IN LOS ANGELES

One of the most unusual aspects of frašizma the First Interest Bank in Los Angeles (USA), since the idea of ​​franchising transferisala despite the listed companies such as Hilton, McDonald’s, Coca-Cola, etc.. and banking but of course in a limited form. First Bank Interest In Los Angeles (USA) gave the franchise for 28 banks (with more than 90 banking centers in eight federal units, which has assets of over U.S. $ 4 billion). The banks that were involved in the franchise were able to use the name First Bank Interest and advertising, various business advice from the donor fanšize and training managers. The right of access to ATMs also received from First Bank Interest-e and various other miscellaneous benefits. Of course, all these banks have maintained their existing ownership structure. Why is it important to mention this bank because, as initially stated that the franchise was created as a method of business activities of the bank, where it sells its business methods as well as your name and independent small businesses and companies.

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